Skip to main content
Michigan OPEN

Our Evidence

Michigan OPEN is driven by data and evidence. Our Prescribing Recommendations and all of our educational materials are shaped by our team’s research and published papers.

Healthcare Professionals

We support you with evidence-based practices, opioid prescribing recommendations, and more.

Healthcare Professionals

Persistent Opioid Use Associated With Dental Opioid Prescriptions Among Publicly and Privately Insured US Patients, 2014 to 2018

Chua KP; Hu HM; Waljee JF; Nalliah RP; Brummett CM; Persistent Opioid Use Associated With Dental Opioid Prescriptions Among Publicly and Privately Insured US Patients, 2014 to 2018. JAMA Network Open. Published online 16 April 2021. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.6464
  • Persistent opioid use was defined as 1 or more dispensed opioid prescriptions 4 to 90 days after the index date and 1 or more prescriptions 91 to 365 days after the index date. Overall POU was 1.3%, and the risk of POU was higher among publicly insured (2.0%) than privately insured patients (0.9%).
  • The initial dental opioid prescriptions were associated with a 1.0–percentage point higher risk of POU among publicly insured patients compared with privately insured patients.
  • The results further highlight the importance of avoiding dental opioid prescribing when nonopioids provide effective analgesia, which is the case for most dental procedures.

Predicting postoperative opioid use with machine learning and insurance claims in opioid-naïve patients

Hur J; Tang S; Gunaseelan V; Vu J; Brummett CM; Englesbe MJ; Waljee JF; Wiens J. Predicting postoperative opioid use with machine learning and insurance claims in opioid-naïve patients. American Journal of Surgery. Published online 26 March 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2021.03.058
  • Potential predictors included sociodemographic data, comorbidities, and prescriptions within one year prior to surgery.
  • Undergoing major surgery, opioid prescriptions within 30 days prior to surgery, and abdominal pain were useful in predicting refills; back/joint/head pain were the most important features in predicting new persistent use.
  • Preoperative patient attributes from insurance claims could potentially be useful in guiding prescription practices for opioid-naïve patients.

Opioid prescribing patterns by dental procedure among US publicly and privately insured patients, 2013 through 2018

Chua KP; Hu HM; Waljee JF; Brummett CM; Nalliah RP. Opioid prescribing patterns by dental procedure among US publicly and privately insured patients, 2013 through 2018. JADA. Published online 23 February 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adaj.2021.01.001
  • Five procedures accounted for 95.2% of dental opioid prescriptions, and tooth extraction accounted for almost two-thirds of total prescriptions.
  • Opioid prescribing for tooth extractions is declining but remains common, despite the availability of equally effective nonopioid alternatives.
  • Eliminating routine opioid prescribing for tooth extraction could reduce dental opioid exposure substantially.

Association of Postoperative Opioid Prescription Size and Patient Satisfaction

Fry BT; Howard RA; Gunaseelan V; Lee JS; Waljee JF; Englesbe MJ; Vu JV. Association of Postoperative Opioid Prescription Size and Patient Satisfaction. Annals of Surgery. Published online 1 February 2021. DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000004784
  • In a large cohort of patients undergoing common surgical procedures, there was no association between opioid prescription size at discharge after surgery and patient satisfaction.
  • This suggests surgeons may continue to decrease postoperative opioid prescription sizes in order to mitigate opioid-related risks without compromising patient satisfaction.

Association of Opioid Type with Opioid Consumption after Surgery

Zikovich S; Gunaseelan V; Englesbe MJ; Waljee JF; Brummett CM. Association of Opioid Type with Opioid Consumption after Surgery. Annals of Surgery. Published online 10 February 2021. DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000004793
  • Patients prescribed hydrocodone consumed 7 tablets (95% CI 6.79-7.18) while patients prescribed oxycodone consumed 6 tablets (95% CI 5.58-6.40.)
  • Although patients prescribed hydrocodone consumed more tablets than patients prescribed oxycodone, this difference was not clinically significant and did not result in differences in satisfaction, pain, or refills.
  • Perioperative opioid prescribing guidelines may recommend the same number of 5 mg oxycodone and hydrocodone tablets without sacrificing patient-reported outcomes.

Patient-Reported Outcomes After Opioid-Sparing Surgery Compared With Standard of Care

Anderson M; Hallway A; Brummett CM; Waljee JF; Englesbe MJ; Howard RA. Patient-Reported Outcomes After Opioid-Sparing Surgery Compared With Standard of Care. JAMA Surgery. Published online 27 January 2021. DOI: 10.1001/jamasurg.2020.5646
  • Patients participating in an opioid-sparing postoperative pathway received and used fewer opioids but reported less pain and similar satisfaction compared with patients receiving standard of care.
  • In the opioid-sparing pathway, 36.8% of patients did not receive an opioid prescription compared with 0% of patients receiving standard of care.
  • Importantly, more patients in the opioid-sparing group received no opioid prescription, which avoids the risk of diversion into communities.

Relationship between initial opioid prescription size and likelihood of refill after spine surgery

Massie L, Gunaseelan V, Waljee J, Brummett C, Schwalb JM. Relationship between initial opioid prescription size and likelihood of refill after spine surgery. The Spine Journal. Published online 16 January 2021.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.01.016
  • About 26.3% of opioid-naïve patients obtained refills of their opioid prescriptions within 30 days of surgery.
  • The likelihood of obtaining a refill was unchanged with the size of the initial perioperative prescription across procedure categories.
  • Patient factors associated with increased likelihood of refills included age 30 to 39 years, female gender, anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and history of alcohol/substance abuse.
  • For opioid-naïve patients, surgeons can prescribe lower amounts of opioids after elective surgery for degenerative spinal disease without concern of increased need for refills.

Prevalence and Patterns of Opioid Use Before and After Liver Transplantation

Cron DC, Tincopa MA, Lee JS, Waljee AK, Hammoud A, Brummett CM, Waljee JF, Englesbe MJ, MD, and Sonnenday CJ. Prevalence and Patterns of Opioid Use Before and After Liver Transplantation. Transplantation. Published online 1 January 2021. DOI: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003155
  • Prescription opioid use is common before and after liver transplant, with intermittent and chronic use largely persisting, and a small development of new chronic use posttransplant.
  • Among previously opioid-naïve patients, 4% developed chronic use posttransplant.
  • Among patients with pretransplant opioid use, 84% remained intermittent or increased to chronic use, and 73% of chronic users remained chronic users after transplant.
  • To minimize the morbidity of long-term opioid use, it is critical to improve pain management and optimize opioid use before and after liver transplant.

A national evaluation of opioid prescribing and persistent use after ambulatory anorectal surgery

Keller DS, Kenney BC, Harbaugh CM, Waljee JF, Brummett CM. A national evaluation of opioid prescribing and persistent use after ambulatory anorectal surgery. Surgery. Published Online 4 December 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.11.006
  • Over 2% of ambulatory anorectal procedures develop new persistent opioid use.
  • Logistic regression found new persistent opioid use was associated with perioperative opioid fills, increased comorbidity, tobacco use, and pain disorders; there was no significant association with procedure performed.
  • Despite small annual reductions in opioid prescriptions, there has been little change in the amount prescribed.
  • This demonstrates a need to develop and disseminate best practices for anorectal surgery, focusing on eliminating unnecessary opioid prescribing.

New Persistent Opioid Use After Inguinal Hernia Repair

Howard RA; Gunaseelan, V; Brummett CM; Waljee, JF; Englesbe MJ; Telem D. New Persistent Opioid Use After Inguinal Hernia Repair. Annals of Surgery. Published Online 15 October 2020 DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000004560
  • 1.5% of patients develop new persistent opioid use after inguinal hernia repair.
  • The strongest risk factor for this complication was filling an opioid prescription in the 30 days prior to surgery, which was most commonly provided by a surgeon.
  • Other risk factors for new persistent opioid use included receiving a larger opioid prescription, having more comorbidities, having a major postoperative complication, and certain mental health disorders and pain disorders.
1 2 3 4 5 7